Anatoli Kartashov (1960
    Group) signed cover
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Cancelled Russian Missions...

Vostok cancelled missions (1964/66)

After the first six successful Vostok manned missions, another seven flights (Vostok 7 to 13) were originally planned, going through to April of 1966, but these were canceled cancelled in favor of the multi-manned Voskhod in February 1964, intended to achieve more Soviet "firsts" in space.

Spaceflight Date Prime Back-up
Vostok 7 April 1964 Volynov Khrunov
Vostok 8 June 1964 Khrunov Belyaev
Vostok 9 August 1964 Belyaev Leonov
Vostok 10 April 1965 Leonov Komarov
Vostok 11 June 1965 Komarov Beregevoi
Vostok 12 August 1965 Beregevoi Komarov
Vostok 13 April 1966 Gorbatko -

Volynov, Khrunov, Belyaev and Leonov were originally assigned for a Vostok mission, but these were cancelled in 1964.

Voskhod cancelled missions (1966/67)

 The Voskhod program, aimed at making Soviet "firsts" in space exploration, also had some missions cancelled to allow a quicker development of the Soyuz spacecraft:

Spaceflight Date Prime Back-up
Voskhod 3 June 1966 Shonin + Volynov Beregevoi + Shatelov
Voskhod 4 Autumn 1967 Beregevoi + Katys Dyomin + Shatalov
Voskhod 5 Autumn 1966 Ponomaryova + Solovyova Kuznetsova + Yorkina
Voskhod 6 Spring 1967 Khrunov + Voronov Gorbatko + Kolodin

Ponomaryova (left) and Solovyova (right) should have made an all-women Voskhod flight in 1966.

Zond Lunar Program (1966/72)

Since the first successful Vostok manned flights, the russians started to prepare a manned lunar landing. The success of the first crew of 3 (Voskhod 1 mission, in 1965) opened the skies for an actual lunar program and possible lunar landing around 1967 (to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution). However, like the 1967 Apollo fire, the russians also had some setbacks, namely the Soyuz 1 mission that killed Komarov in 1967 and also the failures of the N1 rocket launches (the equivalent to the Apollo Saturn V rocket).

This photo shows the transport of a 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft on its Proton booster on the way from the assembly building to the launch pad at Tyura-Tam. Note the cluster of solid-propellant rocket engines at the top of the launch escape tower. The hatch on the external fairing for cosmonaut entry into the actual spacecraft can be seen in the foreground as a dark oblong shape

Although a few of the early russian manned missions had objectives linked to a future lunar program, the first (and only) group of cosmonauts assigned to the Zond lunar program was only officially created in January 1968. It is said that moon preparations were made as early as Valery Bikosvky's Vostok 5 flight, when the mission break a record of 5 days in space. The "Lunar Group" of 18 cosmonauts had the following names (three cosmonauts are yet to be identified):

Cosmonaut Details
Yuri Artyukhin Flew on Soyuz 14, died 1998
Pavel Belyaev Flew on Voskhod 2, died 1970
Valery Bykovsky Flew on Vostok 5, Soyuz 22, Soyuz 31
Georgi Dobrovolski Flew on Soyuz 11, died 1971
Georgi Grechko Flew on Soyuz 17, Soyuz 26, Soyuz T-14
Pyotr Klimuk Flew on Soyuz 13, Soyuz 18, Soyuz 30
Valery Kubasov Flew on Soyuz 6, Soyuz 19, Soyuz 36
Alexei Leonov Flew on Voskhod 2, Soyuz 19
Oleg Makarov Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 27, Soyuz T-3, died 2003
Adrian Nikolayev Flew on Vostok 3, Soyuz 9, died 2004
Pavel Popovich Flew on Vostok 4, Soyuz 14
Nikolai Rukavishnikov Flew on Soyuz 10, Soyuz 16, Soyuz 33, died 2002
Vitaly Sevastyanov Flew on Soyuz 9, Soyuz 18
Valeri Voloshin Never flew
Anatoli Voronov Never flew, died 1993
??? Never flew
??? Never flew
??? Never flew

With the failure of the large N1 rocket, it is speculative to determine the actual mission assignments of each cosmonaut, however, from the information revealed by missions directors and the cosmonauts, the first early group, prepared for a circum-lunar mission in 1967/68 consisted of:

Prime crew Back up crew Second Back up crew
Alexei Leonov
Oleg Makarov
Valery Bykosvky
Nikolai Rukavishnikov
Pavel Popovich
Vitali Sevastyanov

On a later stage, after the success of the Apollo 8 mission, the russian prepared for the actual moon landing, adjusting the crews for the following missions:

Mission Date Prime crew
First Lunar Landing 1969 Alexei Leonov + Oleg Makarov
Second Lunar Landing 1970 Valery Bykosvky + Nikolai Rukavishnikov
Third Lunar Landing 1970 Pavel Popovich + Vitali Sevastyanov

See the complete Zond Lunar  program >>>


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