500rs King Carlos I
    Portugal (silver), 1898

GREEK & ROMAN
Coins from the Greek
and Roman Empire. (480 BC to 450 AD)
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PORTUGAL 1st DIN
Coins from the 1st
Portuguese Dinasty. (1128 to 1383)
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PORTUGAL 2nd DIN
Coins from the 2nd
Portuguese Dinasty. (1385 to 1580)
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PORTUGAL 3rd DIN
Coins from the 3rd
Portuguese Dinasty. (1580 to 1640)
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PORTUGAL 4th DIN
Coins from the 4th
Portuguese Dinasty. (1640 to 1910)
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PORTUGAL REPUBLIC
Coins from the
Portuguese Republic. (From 1910 onwards)
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Joćo III (1521-1557)

John III, nicknamed o Piedoso ("the Pious"), was the fifteenth king of Portugal and Algarves.

Born in Lisbon, he was the son of King Manuel I and his queen consort, Maria of Aragon (the third daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain). John succeeded his father in 1521, at the age of nineteen. He ascended to the throne while the Portuguese Empire was at the height of its mercantile and colonial power, and its capital, Lisbon, occupied a position of global commercial importance. During his rule, Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia and in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India (such as Goa) secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves from the Moluccas and nutmeg from the Banda Islands, as a result of which John III has been called the "Grocer King".

During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty, and Japan, during the Muromachi period of Nanban. He abandoned Muslim territories in North Africa in favor of trade with India and investment in Brazil. In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic region and the Rhineland, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade.

John was responsible for the evangelization of the Far East and Brazil, in part through the introduction of Jesuit missions there. Both the Jesuits and the Portuguese Inquisition, introduced in 1536, were to become key institutions in Portugal and its Empire. The Jesuits were particularly important for mediating Portuguese relations with native peoples and the Inquisition served to spare Portugal the civil upheavals of religious warfare of the sort that occurred in France and elsewhere in Europe during the 16th century. In the final years of John's reign, Portugal's colony of Brazil was just beginning its rapid development as a producer of sugar that compensated for the gradual decline of revenues from Asia, a development that would continue during the reign of his grandson and successor, Sebastian, who became king upon the death of John of apoplexy in 1557.
   

Joćo III (1521 - 1557)

X Reais. Obverse: IOANNES:III:D:G:PORT:ETALGARBIORVM. Reverse: REX QINTVS DECIMVS.

Joćo III (1521 - 1557)

Real. Obverse: IO III. Reverse: R P A.

Joćo III (1521 - 1557)

Ceitil. Obverse: IOANES R P A. Reverse: IOANES R PORTVG.

 

 

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